Nuclear energy legislation
The Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987) is based on the idea that the use of nuclear energy must be safe and benefit society as a whole. It may not cause any harm to people or damage to property or the environment.
The use of nuclear energy creates several obligations for the licensee: the licensee must, among other things, ensure the safety of operations, manage the nuclear waste created through the operations, and assume responsibility for all nuclear waste management costs. Preparations for the nuclear waste management costs are made by collecting funds in advance in the price of electricity and depositing them in the Finnish State Nuclear Waste Management Fund.
The Nuclear Energy Decree (161/1988) and five Government decisions regarding the use of nuclear energy have been issued based on the Nuclear Energy Act. The Government decisions concern nuclear plant safety, safety arrangements, preparedness arrangements, and the final disposal of operating waste and spent nuclear fuel.
Based on the authorization by the nuclear energy legislation, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes YVL Guides that set out the detailed safety requirements for the use of nuclear energy, and the regulatory practices adopted by STUK.
The Radiation Act (859/2018) and the Government Decree on ionizing radiation (1034/2018) include regulations on radiation safety.
The Nuclear Liability Act (484/1972) stipulates that the licensee must have nuclear liability insurance that will compensate for injuries caused to outsiders by a possible nuclear accident, to the extent decreed by law.